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by Matt Townend - Friday, 29 July 2022, 7:53 PM
Anyone in the world


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[ Modified: Friday, 29 July 2022, 8:25 PM ]
 
Anyone in the world

"Words have consequences 謹言慎行 " 是2021年至今新聞中最常聽到的一句話。何故呢?嗯…原因很多。本週,川普總統將面臨第二次彈劾審訊 ( 這是首位被彈劾兩次的美國總統 ) - 川普被控煽動群眾襲擊國會大廈。關於我的一件事少有人知,在我學習成為一位英語老師之前,我曾主修法律。現在看看在美國挑唆暴動的相關法條,我認為川普不太可能會因為他所說的話而入獄,他並未直接叫唆暴民前去襲擊國會大廈,儘管他號召群眾到場聚集,同時指控選舉舞弊才導致這場攻擊事件。川普仍可能會躲過牢獄之災 ( 至少就此事而言…,不過他被控的罪名還有很多 )。他也可能躲過彈劾,因為需要2/3的多數票通過方能定罪,眾議院共和黨人不太可能背棄川普。然而,正如國會大廈暴動事件所示:言語出格的確會付出代價。
"Words have consequences" is a phrase much-heard in the news so far in 2021. Why? Well the reasons are many. This week, President Trump will face his second impeachment trial (the first time a US President has ever been impeached twice) - he stands accused of inciting a crowd to attack the Capitol Building. A little known fact about me is that, before I studied to be an English teacher, I studied to be a lawyer. And looking at the law on inciting a riot in the U.S, I think it's unlikely Trump will go to jail for what he said - he did not directly tell the rioters to attack the Capitol, even if he did call them to be there, to amass, and it was his accusation that the election was stolen that led to the attack. Trump may escape jail (at least for this crime - there are lots of others he is accused of). He may also escape impeachment as, with a 2/3 majority required for a conviction, house Republicans are unlikely to turn on Trump. But, as the Capitol riot shows, words do have consequences.

現在川普已被禁用 Twitter。我知道這點在西方、及特別是在台灣極具爭議。我聽到很多言論認為這近似於中國的審查制度,這些憂慮非常合理。言論自由是否能無限上綱呢?難道我們不能暢所欲言?實際上,在台灣乃至整個西方國家,已經有法律限制民眾的言論 - 我們不能煽動暴力。也有法律明訂:若我們對某人或某事言語不實,導致對方情感上或財務上的損害,稱之為 'slander 誹謗'。那霸凌呢 ? 用言語攻擊他人,通常被稱為 'assault 侵犯人身'。關於自由有一項通則:我們的自由當以不得妨害他人的自由為前提。言論需要付出代價!
Trump has now been banned on Twitter. I know this is very controversial, in the west, and especially in Taiwan. I have heard many calls that this is akin to the state censorship we see in China. These are legitimate concerns. How far does free speech go? Are we not free to say anything we want? Well, actually, in Taiwan, and the western world as a whole, we already have laws preventing people from saying things - we cannot incite violence. There are also laws that mean we can be sued if we lie about someone or their business, and this damages them emotionally or financially (called 'slander'). What about bullying? Attacking others with words is often called 'assault'. There is a general rule about freedom - we can have it, but not if it damages the freedoms of others. Words have consequences.

是否該容許在網路煽動暴力?在網路散佈不實謠言和誹謗他人?八成不行!然而,對言論自由的限制該做到什麼程度?我們的確希望擁有批判政府、決策、或不同意他人觀點的自由。其實有個簡單的解答:不得以暴力脅迫 ( 當然,在現實生活中也同理 )。我們仍可以發表絕大多數的言論,只要我們表明這是個人觀點;川普可以說:" I THINK the election was stolen 我認為選舉造假 ",沒問題!這是他個人意見。但,他不可以說 "the election was stolen 選舉舞弊 ",在沒有實證的情況下把它當成事實闡述。我們已有一個查核事實的網站,名為Wikipedia 維基百科,不允許民眾張貼不實言論或在無實證情況下陳述事件。在Wikipedia 網頁上,未經引證、參考出處的文章很快會被 AI人工智能或人工編輯者移除。或許FB臉書、Twitter推特上的貼文也該以同樣標準處置?把想法當成意見陳述當然沒問題,但若將其視為事實散佈,請準備接受事實查核!
Should we be allowed to incite violence online? Should we be allowed to lie and slander others online? Probably not. But how far do we restrict freedom of speech? We do want to be able to criticise the government, or policy, or disagree with people. There is a simple solution however: no we cannot threaten violence (we cannot do that in real life on the street either), but we can say most things as long as we say it is an opinion: Trump could say "I THINK the election was stolen" - no problem - it is just his opinion. He cannot say, "the election was stolen", presenting it as a fact without real evidence. We already have a website that fact-checks and does not allow people to post lies or present facts without evidence: it is called Wikipedia. On Wikipedia, facts that are not referenced with evidence are quickly removed by AI bots or human editors. Perhaps our FB or Twitter posts need to be held to the same standard? Present an idea as an opinion - no problem, but if you want to say it IS true - prepare to be fact-checked!

川普與其團隊主張選舉造假其中一個重要論調是聲稱投票機被駭、有瑕疵、不可靠。他們經常隨意地提出這些主張,並被像Fox新聞等支持川普的右派新聞媒體所接受引用。然而這些主張未具實證, 現在這些投票機企業主正在控告 Fox 新聞、川普的律師 Rudy Guliani、甚至是川普本人,求償高達數十億美元。我們確實已有辦法對謊言和不實言論進行事實查核,就是所謂的法律,對於妄顧法律之徒來說,代價可能所費不貲。畢竟,空口不能說白話,言論需要付出代價。
A big part of Trump and his teams' assertion that the election was stolen, was claims that the voting machines were hacked, flawed or otherwise not reliable. They made these claims often and freely, and they were taken up by right-wing news outlets like Fox News that support Trump. But these claims had no evidence, and now the owners of those voting machine companies are suing Fox News and Trump's lawyer Rudy Guliani, and possibly Trump himself, for billions of dollars. We do already have a way to fact-check lies and false claims - it is called the law, and it can be very expensive for those who abuse it. Words have consequences.

然而,在川普企圖破壞美國大選的同時,卻發生了更糟糕的事。最近在緬甸,軍方因為其支持政黨的得票率過低,立即宣稱選舉舞弊,完全效仿川普的言論並奪取政權。現在民眾擔心,當民主不能提供獨裁者想要的結果,只要宣稱選舉存在舞弊,就可以完全摒棄民主。這點非常危險。像美國和台灣這樣的民主國家需要成為全世界民主運作的光輝典範,而美國最近並非是好榜樣。獨裁政權會抓緊一切藉口,趁勢摒棄民主為錯誤不可行的。這也許是川普言辭所招致最嚴重的後果。
But something far worse has happened as a consequence of Trump's attempt to undermine the US election. Recently, in Myanmar, the military did not like the result of the election which saw its preferred party receive a very low vote. They immediately claimed election fraud, mimicking exactly what Donald Trump said - and seized power. It is now a fear that any dictator that does not like it when democracy does not give them the result they want, will simply claim that there is election fraud, and dismiss democracy entirely. This is a real danger. Democratic countries like the US and Taiwan need to be a shining example to the rest of the world of how democracy can work - but the US has recently not been a good example. Authoritarian regimes will grasp any excuse to dismiss democracy as flawed and unworkable. This may be the most serious consequence of Trump's words.

如何記住 'consequence 後果' 這個字呢 ? 這是一個相當難的英語單字 ! 拉丁文原字 'consequetia' 意思是 'follow closely 緊跟在後'。我們可以在其中看到 'sequence 序列' 一字,意思是事情接連發生,不過, 'sequence 序列' 這個字也不簡單,其中又暗藏 'queue 行列' 一字,這是一個我永遠拼不出來的單字 ( Luiz:當真 ? 竟有牛津英語大師 Matt Townend 拼不出來的字?Matt:其實有好些個,你的名字就是其一!) 。不過,以上這些字都不能幫助我們記住完整的單字。是時候用一些中文來幫助記憶了 ! 'Con' 聽起來像中文的 'Kan 看',而 'sequ' 看來像中文的 'cike 刺客',讓我們利用這點 ! 而 'ence' 則是像 'an si 暗室'。我從中看到一個故事了!記住這個句子...
So how to remember the word 'consequence' - it is a pretty hard English word! The original word ('consequetia' in latin) means 'follow closely'. We can see the word 'sequence' inside it - meaning one thing happening and then another - but 'sequence' is also a hard word. The word 'queue' is also hiding in there, which is a word I can never spell (Luiz - really? There is a word the great Oxford Master Matt Townend cannot spell? Matt - there are several actually, one of them is your name!). But none of this will really help us remember it. Time to use some Chinese instead! 'Con' sounds like 'Kan' in Chinese (see), and 'sequ' sounds like 'cike' (assassin) in Chinese, so let's use that! 'ence' sounds like 'an si' (dark room). I see a story here! Remember this sentence…

在暗室中看到刺客會有後果...Kan 看 + cike 刺客 + an si 暗室 = consequence 後果 !
Seeing an assassin in a dark room has consequences... Kan + cike + an si = consequence!

呼~ 這麼久以來這算是最難的記憶技巧之一 ! 祝大家新年快樂 ! 謹記...言論需要付出代價 !
Phew! That was one of the hardest mnemonics we have made in a long time! Happy Chinese New Year everyone, and remember... words have consequences!
[ Modified: Thursday, 11 February 2021, 5:49 PM ]
 
Anyone in the world

這個深具影響力的詞串聯起哈利波特、拜登、和2021年!
This powerful word connects Harry Potter, Joe Biden, and 2021!

就是 'crucible嚴峻的考驗' 一詞!
The word is 'crucible'!

在就職典禮上
In his inauguration

拜登稱此刻是 'crucible for the ages 時代的考驗 '
Biden called this time a 'crucible for the ages'

“crucible 坩堝” 是用來鎔解物品的杯狀器皿
A crucible is a cup used for melting things

亦可指嚴峻的考驗
It can also mean a severe test

如哈利波特 "Goblet of Fire火盃的考驗"
such as the "Goblet of Fire" in Harry Potter

"The Crucible" 同時也是知名的戲劇(中譯:激情年代)
"The Crucible" is also a famous play

關於指控女巫的女孩們
about girls accusing to be witches

這世界已歷經強烈的考驗
The world has been tested by violence

歷經分歧
by division

和大流行疾病
and by pandemic

但就如同坩堝中的金屬
but like the metal in the crucible

如同我們面臨的任何考驗
like any test we face

我們終究會更強大、百鍊成鋼
we are remade stronger

[ Modified: Friday, 29 January 2021, 8:42 PM ]
 
Anyone in the world

我們經常會說 '20/20 hindsight 事後諸葛/後見之明' 。這表示回顧過去一年(當個事後諸葛) ,很容易看清事實 (你會有20/20的好眼力-註:20/20為英語表達視力度數的方式)。剛結束的2020年為 '20/20' 這個片語下了新的註解。我們可否形容2020年是 'hindsight 事後諸葛 ' 的一年?
We often talk about having '20/20 hindsight'. This means it is easy to see perfectly (you have 20/20 vision) when you are looking back over the year (you have hindsight). The year 2020 that just passed offers a new meaning to this '20/20' phrase. Was 2020 the year of 'hindsight'?

英國首相 Boris Jonson 決定不像台灣那樣關閉機場、也不提倡普遍戴上口罩,這些決定造成的後果事後看來相當糟糕。英國和台灣一樣是個島嶼,且與中國相距更遠 - 為何我們不能像台灣這樣成功地抑制病毒 ? 台灣或許得益於 SARS的經驗。不過 Jonson 樂天的個性並未認真看待這個病毒,英國現在為此付出了慘痛的代價。
UK Prime Minister Boris Jonson's decision to not close the airports in the way that Taiwan did, or not to advocate for widespread mask wearing are decisions that, with hindsight, seem pretty awful now. The UK is also an island, like Taiwan, and further from China - why could we not have had similar success to Taiwan containing the virus? Taiwan perhaps had the advantage of the experience from SARS. But Jonson's optimistic personality did not take the virus seriously, and the UK is now paying a terrible price.

中國現在也可能後悔在大流行之初掩蓋病毒消息,此舉已嚴重損害中國國際聲譽,'With hindsight ' 以事後諸葛的觀點看來,當初若早點揭示相關消息可能會更好。
China may also now regret covering up the news of the virus at the start of the pandemic, which has done great damage to its international reputation. 'With hindsight', it might have been better to be more open about it earlier on.

鑑於美國近日發生的暴動,許多人都說其實不需要等到事後才能預見這問題發生。民眾多年來一直都認為川普是個危險人物,許多人已經眼見美國右翼極端主義和國內恐怖主義興起。的確,右翼所謂的 'patriots 愛國者' 對美國構成的威脅並不是什麼新聞,而且已經成為無數電影和電視影集如: 'Designated Survivor 指定倖存者' 的題材。川普幾個月來一直在散佈有關選舉的謊言、激怒他的支持者,他在對手 Joe Biden 正式確認勝選的當天,召集大批民眾來到首都。接下來發生的事或許自然無法避免,這點不需要事後諸葛才能預見這種情況。
With the recent insurrection in the US, many are saying that you did NOT need 20/20 hindsight to see this problem coming. People have been saying Trump is dangerous for years, and many had seen the rise of right wing extremism in America and domestic terrorism. Indeed, the idea that right wing so-called 'patriots' are a threat to America is not new, and has been the subject of countless movies and TV shows like 'Designated Survivor.' Trump has been spreading lies about the election for months, angering his supporters. He summoned a crowd of thousands to the capital on the day when his opponent, Joe Biden, was having his election win confirmed. What happened next was perhaps inevitable. No hindsight required to see that coming.

犯錯的人常會指責批評者作為事後諸葛當然容易。畢竟,在做抉擇的當下若已知未來的結果,將永遠不會做出錯誤的決定。然而,當你無法得知結果時,很難做出正確的判斷。這論點有時挺公允的,不過,有時身為決策者應該更清楚預見可能會發生的結果。
People who make mistakes often blame their critics by pointing out it is easy to be right with 20/20 hindsight. After all, if you knew what the future was when you made a decision, you would never make a wrong decision. But when you do not know the outcome, it's much harder to be right. Sometimes this is fair, but sometimes the decision makers should have known better what would have happened.

所以沒錯,以事後諸葛的角度而言,我們希望可以改變2020年發生的許多事。許多生命可以被拯救。但是,同樣地,也許很多問題是可以預見的,並不需要事後諸葛才能看清。你怎麼想呢?這一年所發生的事是否其實可以避免?還是我們不過是事後諸葛?
So yes, 2020 was the year where we wish, with 20/20 hindsight, we could change many things. Many lives could have been saved. But, equally, perhaps many of the problems were predictable, with no hindsight required. What do you think? Were the problems this year avoidable, now that we have 20/20 hindsight?
 
Anyone in the world

2020,很漂亮的數字。一對20s-俐落而工整。 但這是陷入全球流行病和政治動蕩紛擾噩夢的一年。 我們很幸運地生活在台灣,感覺就像是籠罩在暴風雨大海中最後一個安全的島嶼。 我們在English Sandwich開設的是一個兼具娛樂性質的英語教育部落格,不過今年,我們的發文已經被發生在英、美兩國的事件所劫持操控。如果你喜歡英語,那麼你應當很忽略英語的兩個最大發源地遭逢如此重大苦難。特別是在美國,民主遭受了自1930年希特勒和德國以來前所未有的打擊。
2020. The number is beautiful. It looks neat and tidy - a pair of 20s. But it is a year that has been a nightmare mess of pandemic and political upheaval across the world. We are blessed to live in Taiwan, which feels like the last safe island in a sea of storms. We here on English Sandwich are an English Education blog with an entertainment spin - but this year our posts have been rather hijacked by what has been happening in America and the UK. If you care about the English language, it's been pretty hard to ignore when the two biggest cradles of the English language suffer so badly. In America particularly, democracy itself has been under attack in a way we have not seen since Hitler and Germany in the 1930s.

剛在美國發生的事,對國會大廈的襲擊,可預期大概是終結川普總統任期的唯一方式。'insurrection 暴動/叛亂/造反/作亂',一個有強而有力的詞彙,此時在美國被提及,意為反權威的暴動,它來自拉丁語 'insugere' 一字,意指叛變、起義。這在美國是非法的,可能會招致罰款、甚至長達10年的牢獄之災。然而,這個暴動並非在一夕之間發生。川普長期以來一直在打擊美國政府的權威,他試圖推翻自己輸掉的這場選舉,已遭到美國60多個法院駁回。然而他根本無法接受這場選舉的失敗是公平的。他會輸的唯一原因是被對手所詐,不是嗎? 川普拒絕接受查無任何佐證支持他主張的合法程序,他決意反抗法治和民主。
What has just happened in America, the attack on the Capitol building, is arguably the only way the Trump presidency could have ended. The word 'insurrection' is now being used in America - and it is a powerful word, meaning an uprising against authority, from the latin 'insugere' meaning to rise up. It is illegal in the USA and can result in a fine or even prison for up to 10 years. But this insurrection did not just happen in one day. Trump has been attacking the authority of the US government for a long time. His attempt to overthrow an election he lost has been rejected by over 60 courts in the US. Yet he simply would not accept that the election was lost fairly. The only way he could lose, was if the other side cheated, right? By refusing to accept the legal process that found no evidence to support his claims, Trump was engaged in an insurrection against the Rule of Law and Democracy itself.

然後呢?另一個今日美國人侃侃而談的一個字: incite 煽動/唆使 ( 拉丁語-意指 in 朝向 + citare 覺醒/奮起)。川普是否煽動這些暴徒襲擊國會大廈?這個問題將是川普未來兩週在政治上生存的關鍵,也關係到他隨後是否將因此事入獄,因為煽動民眾推翻政府也是一項罪行。川普於當局正在統計票數、正式認證拜登當選總統的同一天,在華府召開集會 (稱之為 'March for Trump 挺川普遊行')。他在白宮前喊話 ( 正在計票的國會大廈距白宮僅2英里步行距離)。在暴動發生之前,我的確觀看了川普對民眾的現場喊話。川普說要向國會大廈前進,為選民打氣,在他的辯稱中,的確曾表示將和平進行。川普宣稱會和民眾一起遊行 (實際上並沒有,川普返回了白宮)。不過,川普的律師 Rudy Guliani 也向民眾發言,提及了 'trial by combat 衝突審判'。川普兒子說,他們正 'coming for you 為你而來' 。而一位國會議員 Brooks 則談到了 'kicking ass 給點顏色瞧瞧'。川普和他的團隊真的希望這情況發生嗎 ? 不!我不這麼認為。川普似乎確實是在呼籲和平抗議,不過,他是在玩火。你邀請數萬名最狂熱、極端的支持者在你試圖推翻選舉結果的關鍵時刻來到首都;隨後激怒他們,告訴他們朝國會大廈前進。整件事擦槍走火的機率非常高。而警方毫無準備。川普自稱是法治總統、他的支持者聲稱愛戴警察,他們不曾想過會發生這樣的情況 (不像’Black Lives Matter 黑人性命攸關’抗議事件,警察已作足充分準備)。遊行中多數的民眾是白人而非黑人,這些似乎讓警方鬆懈了警戒,一名警察甚至跟抗議者自拍合影。
So what next? Well, another key word is hot on American tongues today: incite (latin in- meaning towards + citare meaning rouse). Did Trump incite these rioters to attack the Capitol? This question will be key to Trump's political survival the next two weeks, and whether he goes to jail later for what just happened, for inciting people to overthrow the government is also a crime. Trump called a rally (called 'March for Trump') in Washington on the same day the Government was counting the votes and would officially recognise Biden as President-elect. He spoke in front of the White House (the Capitol building where the vote count was happening is 2 miles away - walking distance). I actually watched Trump's speech to the crowd live before the riot happened.
Trump said they were going to March towards the Capitol building to cheer on the electors but, in his defense, he did say they were going to go peacefully. He also said he would march with them (he did not - he returned to the White House). However, Rudy Guliani, Trump's lawyer, also spoke to the crowd and talked about a 'trial by combat'. Trump's son said they are 'coming for you.' And a congressman Brooks spoke of 'kicking ass.' So did Trump and his team want this to happen? No, I don't think they did. Trump did seem to be calling for peaceful protest. But what he did do was play with fire. You invite tens of thousands of your most ardent and extreme supporters to the capital at a pivotal moment in your attempt to overthrow the election. You then rile them up and tell them to head for the Capitol building. The chances were pretty high something would go wrong. The police were unprepared. Trump claims to be the Law and Order president. His fans claim to love the police. They didn't think this would happen (unlike the Black Lives Matter protests where the police were fully prepared). Most of the crowd was white, not black. All of this seems to have made the police let their guard down. One policeman even took a selfie with a protestor.

川普一直都在作亂,他煽動民眾相信此次選舉結果舞弊。然而他是否直接煽動對國會大廈的襲擊 ? 這點尚待商榷,他是否會被免職、或最終將鋃鐺入獄,時間自有解答。但他現在已經承認敗選,且(終於)開始提及和平及權力移交。他說自己不會是下一任總統。他終於放棄了,現正為生死存亡而戰,一切都結束了。我們剛剛經歷了史上重要的一刻,美國的民主得以倖存。只要你留意,未來將會有許多與此相關的書籍和電影。
Trump has been engaged in an insurrection, and he has incited his people to believe that the election was stolen from them. But did he incite the attacks on the Capitol directly? This is debatable and time will tell if he is removed from power now, or finally goes to prison. But he has now conceded the election - and is now talking (finally) of peace and a transfer of power. He has said he will not be president next term. He is giving up, and is now fighting for survival. It's over. We just lived through a pivotal moment in history. American democracy survived. There will be many books written and movies made about this in the years to come, just you watch.

對於仍然相信川普在某種程度上對台灣有所助益的台灣人:試問,若美國民主垮台,台灣的民主能維持多久?中國正在嘲笑美國,並以此例做為民主不可行的事證。他們將闖入國會的暴徒和香港的抗議者相提並論 (只不過,香港的抗議者是為了民主而戰,和國會大廈的暴徒不同)。中國趁亂坐大,川普並不會襄助台灣。好消息是,拜登和民主黨,其實是關切像台灣這樣的民主國家和人權的,拜登曾直呼習近平為 'thug 惡棍/流氓' ,他們會協助台灣。且讓我們耐心以待。
To Taiwanese who still believe Trump is somehow a help to Taiwan: we say this. How long would Taiwanese democracy last, if American democracy falls? China is laughing at the US and using this as evidence of why democracy doesn't work. They are comparing the rioters in the Capitol to the protestors in Hong Kong (except, of course, the protestors in Hong Kong are fighting FOR democracy, unlike the rioters in the Capitol). China has taken advantage of the chaos to become stronger. Trump has not helped Taiwan. The good news is that Biden and the Democrats, who actually care about democracies like Taiwan, and human rights, Biden who once called Xi Jinping a 'thug' - they will help Taiwan. Wait and see.

Insurrection 暴亂、Incite 煽動。如何記住這兩個重要的字呢? Incite 聽起來像 'in sight 看得見', 所以我們可以利用這點。暴亂Insurrection 聽來像 'sure 確信' + 'election 選舉',這點也可善用。記住這句話:"Trump incited the crowd in sight of the Capitol Building because he was sure they were stealing the election 川普煽動在國會大廈中看見的民眾,因為他確信他們偷走大選"。in + sight = incite 煽動, in + sure + election = insurrection 暴動/叛亂/造反/作亂。
Insurrection. Incite. How to remember these two important words? Incite sounds like 'in sight', so we can use that. Insurrection sounds like sure + 'election' so we can use that too. Remember this topical sentence! "Trump incited the crowd in sight of the Capitol Building because he was sure they were stealing the election." in + sight = incite, in + sure + election = insurrection.

川普的故事完結了,然而疫情更加肆虐。2021年的開端並不順利,但相信很快就會好轉! 期待大家的2021年遠比2020年更加美好!
The story of Trump is over, but the pandemic is raging harder than ever. 2021 has not had the best of starts, but it will get better soon! We wish you a far better 2021 than 2020!
 
Anyone in the world

如2013年的電影"大亨小傳"中所見

as seen in the Great Gatsby (2013)


不過它也可能源自更早之前。

but its use probably predates that.


它可能來自Cleveland總統所鍾情的女演員 "Eleanor Duse"。

It may come from the actress Eleanor Duse loved by President Cleveland.

電影中這個奇特的美式片語讓英國人一頭霧水 This weird American phrase from the movies is absolutely baffling to English people

但它也可能來自 "daisy雛菊" 一字

but it probably comes from the word "daisy"

https://www.publicdomainpictures.net/pictures/270000/velka/oxeye-daisy-flower.jpg


此字在18世紀意指極棒的事物 !

which back in the 18th Century meant something great!


下次觀看美劇時要多留意 'doozy' 一詞

Look out for the word 'doozy' next time you see an American movie


它真是一個 'doozy不尋常/極好or極差' 的字!

It's really a 'doozy' of a word!

 
Anyone in the world

反諷是件很有意思的事。看到一個壞傢伙因為自己的行為付出代價、或自詡贏得全局卻滿盤皆輸,沒有比這更過癮的事了! 任何人看到《Avengers: Infinity War 復仇者聯盟 : 無限之戰'》劇中Thanos敗於自己的無限寶石手套…說實在的,真是過癮! 當我們進行一件事但是結果卻適得其反時,可以稱之為 'backfires 弄巧成拙/適得其反'。

Irony is delicious. There is nothing more satisfying than seeing a bad guy lose due to his own actions, or think he is winning, but actually losing. Anyone who has seen 'Avengers: Infinity War' and seen Thanos defeated with his own magic gauntlet... well, it feels good! When we do something but it has the opposite effect, we can say that it 'backfires'.

在10月時,中國施壓要求不得宣稱台灣為一個國家,實際上卻導致印度 (目前與中國為敵) 掛起比往日更多的台灣國旗,其間與台灣相關的貼文更迅速爆紅。然而,這不是中國所樂見的事。川普亦然 ( Luiz : 原諒我們無法不在 English Sandwich 提及川普....Matt:噢~再等等!很快!等一月份到來就解脫了!) 我們見證了他的行為 'backfire 弄巧成拙'。他持續告訴他的支持者,此次選舉的被 'rigged 操縱' 不利於他 ( 請參閱我們前篇關於 'rigged 操縱' 一詞的貼文 ),但如今他仍需鼓動他的擁護者在1月份再次投票支持至關重要的參議院選舉。他的支持者對於是否值得再次投票的態度可能會困惑躊躇,不過我們很快會看到川普的行為究竟是否會 'backfired 弄巧成拙' 。

In October, pressure from China to not call Taiwan a country, actually resulted in India (who is China's enemy at the moment) putting up more Taiwanese flags than before, and made posts about Taiwan go viral. Not what China wanted to happen. Trump too (Luiz - because we cannot have a post from English Sandwich that does not mention Trump... Matt - oh we will soon, just wait for January!) has seen his actions 'backfire'. He has been telling his supporters that elections are 'rigged' against him (see our previous post about the word 'rigged' here) but he now also needs to encourage those supporters to vote again in January for a vital senate election. His supporters might be a bit confused about whether it is worth voting or not, but we will see if Trump's actions have 'backfired' soon.

這個詞很容易理解,它來自最初不靠譜的槍枝和大砲,有時會產生逆火或爆炸而誤殺使用者 ! The word is pretty easy to understand. It comes from the first guns and cannons that were unreliable and sometimes fired backwards or exploded - killing the user!

記得本週別讓自己的行為 'backfire 弄巧成拙' !

Make sure your actions don't 'backfire' this week!

 
Anyone in the world

最近你會經常聽到川普談論大選如何被 'rigged 操作',意指選舉被不公地操縱。川普持續宣稱美國大選被 'rigged非法操縱'。儘管事實上他的每一個訟案都失敗,甚至連他自己的司法部長和負責選務的人員都承認未發現任何舞弊行為。沒有任何實質證據,不過,這對川普來說並不重要......

You will have heard Trump talking a lot recently about how the election was 'rigged', meaning it was manipulated to be unfair. Trump continues to claim that the USA election was 'rigged', despite the fact that every single court case has failed, and even his own Attorney General and the man in charge of the elections have had to admit that they have found no fraud. No evidence has been found, but that doesn't matter much to Trump...

 'rigged 操縱' 這字的起源不明,它意思的起源難以查明。它似乎來自倫敦底層社會,竊賊們用來規避法律的一種 'cant 黑話/行話' 。我一直認為它與船上風帆 'rigging 繩索/索具' 有關,但看來不是。 'rig 裝備' 也可以是任何自製臨時的機器或設備,因此我也曾想像過,它指的是撲克玩家自製的夾子或暗袋,以便將牌暗藏於袖子或手中在牌局中作弊。不過,這只是我的推論,並非事實。 ( Luiz : 看來你真的毫無所知? Matt:至少比你多! )。另一個推論(Luiz-又來了…)它指的可能是釣魚-釣具就是釣線、誘餌、任何用來“誘騙”魚上鈎的工具 - 因此,這場漁夫和魚之間的競爭不盡公平 - 這場遊戲被 'rigged操控' 在漁夫手中(Matt - 我最偏好這個解釋!)。

The word 'rigged' has a murky past, and the origin of its meaning is hard to find. It seems to originate in the London underworld, in a language called 'cant' used by thieves to hide their meaning from the law. I always thought it had something to do with the 'rigging', the sails, on ships - but it seems not. A 'rig' can also be any kind of home-made, temporary machine or device, so I also used to imagine that it referred to a homemade clip or secret pocket used by poker players to hide a card up their sleeve or in their hand, to cheat at poker. But, again, this is just my theory, not fact (Luiz - you really have no idea do you? Matt - more than you do!). Another theory (Luiz - here we go...) could be fishing - a fishing rig is the line, lure, everything you need to 'trick' the fish to bite and be caught - so it isn't really a fair fight between fisherman and fish - the game is 'rigged' in the fisherman's favor as he is cheating (Matt - I like this explanation best!).

關於川普聲稱大選遭人 'rigged 操縱',奇怪的一點是,通常 'rigging 操縱' 是由負責的人、掌權的人進行。像民眾普遍相信白俄羅斯最近的選舉,是受到現任總統 Lukashenko 的控制,他有實權控制選舉過程和警力,因此很容易操控選舉。然而,川普是現任總統,一個可以掌控這麼多事情的當權者,竟然宣稱應由他掌控的選舉過程,遭人操控與他對立,真是不簡單 ! 若他真認為不在場投票制度有舞弊之嫌,何不在選舉前徹底地改變程序、或糟糕的不在場投票制呢?實際上,川普希望透過一個有疑慮的選舉過程以助他宣佈選舉無效、推翻不利於他的民主結果。

The odd thing about Trump saying the election was 'rigged', is that usually the 'rigging' is done by the people in charge, the ones with the power. The recent elections in Belarus are widely believed to have been rigged by sitting President Lukashenko - he had the power, control of the process and police, and so could easily rig an election. But Trump IS President - it is quite remarkable that the person in power who can control so much, could say that a process he controls has been rigged against him! If he really feared some kind of cheating by absentee ballot, why not change the process before the election, or bad absentee ballots altogether? The truth is Trump wanted an election with a questionable process, as it would help him declare it void and overturn a democratic result against him.

如何記住 'rig 操縱 ' 這個字呢 ? 讓我們利用 'rig' 跟 'pig' 的押韻,記住這個句子:"Only a real pig would rig an election. 只有貨真價實的豬才會操縱選舉" ! real 真的 + pig 豬 = rig 操縱。這裡的 'real' 只是為了提示 'r' 字首的拼字, 以防遺忘 ! 

So how to remember the word 'rig'? Well the word rhymes with 'pig', so let's use that. Remember this sentence! "Only a real pig would rig an election!" real + pig = rig. The 'real' is there just to give us the 'r' - in case we forget!

牛津英語大師祝大家接下來的一週持續精進英文!

Have a great week mastering English, everyone!

 
Anyone in the world

我們不是字典的忠實擁護者,也並非反對書籍,實際上,我們愛書(Luiz : 沒錯,我們寫書 ! )。只不過,字典對於某些事物的定義常過於簡化,以致錯失了這些事物所代表更廣泛有用的涵義。就如同我們在動物園看一隻豹,雖然同是一隻豹,但這和在野外所見是完全不同的體驗(Luiz : 我不確定自己想在野外遇見牠....Matt : 膽小鬼!)。語言之道亦相通,你需要實際看到語言被應用的實例。所以字典並非是上乘的替代方案。

We are not big fans of dictionaries. No, we are not anti-book - we love books (Luiz - indeed, we write them!). But dictionaries often seek to define something so simply, they can miss the wider more useful meaning. It's like looking at a leopard in a zoo. Yeah, it's a leopard, but that's a very different experience from seeing it in the wild (Luiz - I am not sure I want to see it in the wild... Matt - coward!). Language is the same - you really need to see it being used. A dictionary is a poor replacement.


當我在BBC看到一則1萬2千年前的古老 'frieze 雕樑壁畫/帶狀雕刻’ 石畫在亞馬遜被發現的新聞時 ( 該畫含括呈現了已滅絕的動物如:長毛象),我拿起字典研究這篇文章,結果令我大失所望。身為母語人士,我雖知道 'frieze 雕樑壁畫/帶狀雕刻’ 一詞,不過這可能是我頭一遭查閱。對我而言,'frieze' 是指一系列連續的水平岩畫。的確,就是新聞中的岩畫藝術,一個長幅水平畫作,就像一個長形飾帶。不過,若你查找字典,會看到兩個定義:一是繡帶邊框的布料、二是牆壁頂部具裝飾性的水平飾邊,字典中未提及任何與藝術或繪畫有關的內容。只有進一步在 wikipedia 維基百科上才能找到更完整的解釋,此字涵義已衍生涵蓋任何一連串系列長幅水平藝術作品。

When I saw the news on the BBC about a 'frieze' of ancient 12000 year old rock art paintings discovered in the Amazon (complete with pictures of extinct animals like mastodons), I took to my dictionary to research this article - and was disappointed. Now, as a native speaker, I know what a 'frieze' is, but this may be the first time I've actually checked. To me a 'frieze' is a series of horizontal paintings. And, indeed, that is what this rock art is - a long horizontal painting, like a band. But, if you look it up in a dictionary, you will get 2 definitions: 1 - some kind of cloth with an embroidered border 2 - a decorative horizontal band at the top of a wall. Nothing about art or paintings. Only when you get to wikipedia do you get a more full definition that explains that the meaning is extended to any long horizontal piece or series of pieces of art.


這個字歷史的確源自 'cloth 布 / 織物' ( 法語中的 'frise' 或 'friser 捲曲/捲髮'  )。的確,我們今日常以'frizzý' 形容細軟捲曲的頭髮 ( Luiz : 就如Matt的頭髮,Matt : 謝謝噢!Luiz )。不過這對我們記憶這個字幫助不大,除非你原本就知道 'frizzy' 一字;而這個字聽起來又像 'freeze 凍結' ,所以我們可以利用這點 ! 記住這句話 :  'A frieze of rock art from the freezing Ice Age was found in the Amazon 一幅冰原世紀的雕樑壁畫在亞馬遜被發現' !  freeze 凍結 = frieze 雕樑壁畫/帶狀雕刻。當然,你要記住不同的拼法,而且例句中已經提供一個線索,Ice Age 中的 'i' 會提示你正確的拼法 ! 

The word's history does come from the idea of 'cloth' (French 'frise' or to curl 'friser'). Indeed, we often say curly hair is 'frizzý' today if it is fine and curly (Luiz - like Matt's hair, Matt - thanks, Luiz). But that doesn't really help us remember it, unless you already know the word 'frizzy', The word does sound like 'freeze' however - so we can use that! Remember this sentence: 'A frieze of rock art from the freezing Ice Age was found in the Amazon!' freeze = frieze. You will, of course, need to remember the different spelling, but we have worked a clue into the example - Ice Age will give you the 'i' you need to spell the word right!

耶!我們終於教了一個與川普或疫情無關的單字 ! 記得,不要光查字典,上 google 找找會發現什麼?圖片、維基百科、其它例句…。在廣闊的荒地中查找單字,別只光看猶如動物園般狹隘的字典 ! 

Well, we did it! We finally taught you a word that has nothing to do with Trump or the pandemic! And remember - don't just check a dictionary - google a word and see what you find - the pictures, the wikipedia, other examples. Look at words in the wild, not just the 'zoo' of a dictionary!

 
Anyone in the world

近日來,至少3種以上的主要疫苗即將問世的消息接踵不斷(Luiz:其一來自我們的母校牛津大學,Matt:儘管這點跟他毫無關係,瞧他驕傲的勒.....Luiz : 嘿嘿! ) 近來籠罩在黑暗與死亡的威脅之中,對於這樣的消息,我們可說終於迎來 'light at the end of the tunnel 隧道的盡頭出現曙光→柳暗花明又一村、撥雲見日、苦盡甘來!' 終於有望走出 Covid 新冠病毒的陰霾迎來曙光(Luiz : 台灣嚴格來說不算太糟…Matt : 沒錯!但世界其他各處仍深受其害!)。如果你常聽 CNN 或 BBC 頻道,相信你會常聽到這片語。這句話自1962年被甘迺迪總統引用後,至今廣為流傳。
News abounds recently of no less than 3 major vaccines coming down the pipeline (Luiz: including one from our very own Oxford University Matt: He's so proud! Even though he had nothing to do with it... Luiz: Hey!). Amid all the darkness and death recently, we can say that there is 'light at the end of the tunnel!' There is hope that we will come out of the Covid tunnel and into the light (Luiz: but Taiwan isn't really in the tunnel... Matt: True! But the rest of the world still is!). Listen to CNN or the BBC and you will hear this phrase often. It became popular after being used by President Kennedy in 1962.

有趣的是,支持川普的美國新聞台FOX新聞卻更偏好另一種說法,川普愛用的一句話 : 'rounding the curve 行經彎道'。事實上,你幾乎可以在他每次的談話中聽到這句話。English Sandwich 其實直到近日才常聽到這個片語,不過我們理解這句話的含意。開車過彎時總是比較危險,需要減速慢行且看不清前方道路,不過曲折之後,往往是一條平坦的康莊大道 (Luiz:為何不能是另一個曲折之路呢 ? Matt : 你毀了我的解釋 ! ) 因此,這個片語也近似 'a light at the end of the tunnel 撥雲見日之意'。為何川普較偏愛這句話呢 ? 因為 'light at the end of the tunnel' 暗示我們正身處黑暗之中,而川普堅決否認病毒對美國造成的嚴重影響。對川普而言,沒有所謂暗夜籠罩,'Rounding a curve ' 不過是行經彎道,只要持續前行,不會有什麼大問題,只是蜿蜒而行,事情總會豁然開朗。
Interestingly, Fox News, which is the American news station that favors Trump, has preferred a different phrase, a phrase that Trump also prefers: 'rounding the curve'. In fact, he says it almost every time you hear him speak. We at English Sandwich had not really heard this phrase often until recently, but we know what it means. Going around a corner when driving a car is always more dangerous, you need to go slower, and you can't see the road ahead. After a curve, comes a nice clear straight road (Luiz - why can't there be another curve? Matt - you are ruining my explanation!). So this phrase is similar to 'a light at the end of the tunnel'. Why does Trump prefer it? Because 'light at the end of the tunnel' suggests we are in darkness now, in a tunnel, and Trump has resolutely refused to accept the virus in America is serious. For Trump, there is no tunnel. 'Rounding a curve' suggests driving forward, movement, no big problem, just a curve in the road, and then things get better.

一個片語在含意上的差異多有趣啊!
How interesting the difference in meaning a phrase can make!

請大家保重!沒錯! 'light at the end of the tunnel! 我們終將撥雲見日!'
Stay safe everyone - and yes, there IS 'light at the end of the tunnel!'