as seen in the Great Gatsby (2013)
but its use probably predates that.
它可能來自Cleveland總統所鍾情的女演員 "Eleanor Duse"。
It may come from the actress Eleanor Duse loved by President Cleveland.
但它也可能來自 "daisy雛菊" 一字
but it probably comes from the word "daisy"
which back in the 18th Century meant something great!
下次觀看美劇時要多留意 'doozy' 一詞
Look out for the word 'doozy' next time you see an American movie
它真是一個 'doozy不尋常/極好or極差' 的字!
It's really a 'doozy' of a word!
反諷是件很有意思的事。看到一個壞傢伙因為自己的行為付出代價、或自詡贏得全局卻滿盤皆輸，沒有比這更過癮的事了！ 任何人看到《Avengers: Infinity War 復仇者聯盟 : 無限之戰'》劇中Thanos敗於自己的無限寶石手套…說實在的，真是過癮！ 當我們進行一件事但是結果卻適得其反時，可以稱之為 'backfires 弄巧成拙/適得其反'。
Irony is delicious. There is nothing more satisfying than seeing a bad guy lose due to his own actions, or think he is winning, but actually losing. Anyone who has seen 'Avengers: Infinity War' and seen Thanos defeated with his own magic gauntlet... well, it feels good! When we do something but it has the opposite effect, we can say that it 'backfires'.
在10月時，中國施壓要求不得宣稱台灣為一個國家，實際上卻導致印度 (目前與中國為敵) 掛起比往日更多的台灣國旗，其間與台灣相關的貼文更迅速爆紅。然而，這不是中國所樂見的事。川普亦然 ( Luiz : 原諒我們無法不在 English Sandwich 提及川普....Matt：噢~再等等！很快！等一月份到來就解脫了！) 我們見證了他的行為 'backfire 弄巧成拙'。他持續告訴他的支持者，此次選舉的被 'rigged 操縱' 不利於他 ( 請參閱我們前篇關於 'rigged 操縱' 一詞的貼文 )，但如今他仍需鼓動他的擁護者在1月份再次投票支持至關重要的參議院選舉。他的支持者對於是否值得再次投票的態度可能會困惑躊躇，不過我們很快會看到川普的行為究竟是否會 'backfired 弄巧成拙' 。
In October, pressure from China to not call Taiwan a country, actually resulted in India (who is China's enemy at the moment) putting up more Taiwanese flags than before, and made posts about Taiwan go viral. Not what China wanted to happen. Trump too (Luiz - because we cannot have a post from English Sandwich that does not mention Trump... Matt - oh we will soon, just wait for January!) has seen his actions 'backfire'. He has been telling his supporters that elections are 'rigged' against him (see our previous post about the word 'rigged' here) but he now also needs to encourage those supporters to vote again in January for a vital senate election. His supporters might be a bit confused about whether it is worth voting or not, but we will see if Trump's actions have 'backfired' soon.
這個詞很容易理解，它來自最初不靠譜的槍枝和大砲，有時會產生逆火或爆炸而誤殺使用者 ! The word is pretty easy to understand. It comes from the first guns and cannons that were unreliable and sometimes fired backwards or exploded - killing the user!
記得本週別讓自己的行為 'backfire 弄巧成拙' !
Make sure your actions don't 'backfire' this week!
最近你會經常聽到川普談論大選如何被 'rigged 操作'，意指選舉被不公地操縱。川普持續宣稱美國大選被 'rigged非法操縱'。儘管事實上他的每一個訟案都失敗，甚至連他自己的司法部長和負責選務的人員都承認未發現任何舞弊行為。沒有任何實質證據，不過，這對川普來說並不重要......
You will have heard Trump talking a lot recently about how the election was 'rigged', meaning it was manipulated to be unfair. Trump continues to claim that the USA election was 'rigged', despite the fact that every single court case has failed, and even his own Attorney General and the man in charge of the elections have had to admit that they have found no fraud. No evidence has been found, but that doesn't matter much to Trump...
'rigged 操縱' 這字的起源不明，它意思的起源難以查明。它似乎來自倫敦底層社會，竊賊們用來規避法律的一種 'cant 黑話/行話' 。我一直認為它與船上風帆 'rigging 繩索/索具' 有關，但看來不是。 'rig 裝備' 也可以是任何自製臨時的機器或設備，因此我也曾想像過，它指的是撲克玩家自製的夾子或暗袋，以便將牌暗藏於袖子或手中在牌局中作弊。不過，這只是我的推論，並非事實。 ( Luiz : 看來你真的毫無所知? Matt：至少比你多！ )。另一個推論（Luiz-又來了…）它指的可能是釣魚-釣具就是釣線、誘餌、任何用來“誘騙”魚上鈎的工具 - 因此，這場漁夫和魚之間的競爭不盡公平 - 這場遊戲被 'rigged操控' 在漁夫手中（Matt - 我最偏好這個解釋！）。
The word 'rigged' has a murky past, and the origin of its meaning is hard to find. It seems to originate in the London underworld, in a language called 'cant' used by thieves to hide their meaning from the law. I always thought it had something to do with the 'rigging', the sails, on ships - but it seems not. A 'rig' can also be any kind of home-made, temporary machine or device, so I also used to imagine that it referred to a homemade clip or secret pocket used by poker players to hide a card up their sleeve or in their hand, to cheat at poker. But, again, this is just my theory, not fact (Luiz - you really have no idea do you? Matt - more than you do!). Another theory (Luiz - here we go...) could be fishing - a fishing rig is the line, lure, everything you need to 'trick' the fish to bite and be caught - so it isn't really a fair fight between fisherman and fish - the game is 'rigged' in the fisherman's favor as he is cheating (Matt - I like this explanation best!).
關於川普聲稱大選遭人 'rigged 操縱'，奇怪的一點是，通常 'rigging 操縱' 是由負責的人、掌權的人進行。像民眾普遍相信白俄羅斯最近的選舉，是受到現任總統 Lukashenko 的控制，他有實權控制選舉過程和警力，因此很容易操控選舉。然而，川普是現任總統，一個可以掌控這麼多事情的當權者，竟然宣稱應由他掌控的選舉過程，遭人操控與他對立，真是不簡單 ! 若他真認為不在場投票制度有舞弊之嫌，何不在選舉前徹底地改變程序、或糟糕的不在場投票制呢？實際上，川普希望透過一個有疑慮的選舉過程以助他宣佈選舉無效、推翻不利於他的民主結果。
The odd thing about Trump saying the election was 'rigged', is that usually the 'rigging' is done by the people in charge, the ones with the power. The recent elections in Belarus are widely believed to have been rigged by sitting President Lukashenko - he had the power, control of the process and police, and so could easily rig an election. But Trump IS President - it is quite remarkable that the person in power who can control so much, could say that a process he controls has been rigged against him! If he really feared some kind of cheating by absentee ballot, why not change the process before the election, or bad absentee ballots altogether? The truth is Trump wanted an election with a questionable process, as it would help him declare it void and overturn a democratic result against him.
如何記住 'rig 操縱 ' 這個字呢 ? 讓我們利用 'rig' 跟 'pig' 的押韻，記住這個句子："Only a real pig would rig an election. 只有貨真價實的豬才會操縱選舉" ! real 真的 + pig 豬 = rig 操縱。這裡的 'real' 只是為了提示 'r' 字首的拼字, 以防遺忘 !
So how to remember the word 'rig'? Well the word rhymes with 'pig', so let's use that. Remember this sentence! "Only a real pig would rig an election!" real + pig = rig. The 'real' is there just to give us the 'r' - in case we forget!
Have a great week mastering English, everyone!
我們不是字典的忠實擁護者，也並非反對書籍，實際上，我們愛書（Luiz : 沒錯，我們寫書 ! )。只不過，字典對於某些事物的定義常過於簡化，以致錯失了這些事物所代表更廣泛有用的涵義。就如同我們在動物園看一隻豹，雖然同是一隻豹，但這和在野外所見是完全不同的體驗（Luiz : 我不確定自己想在野外遇見牠....Matt : 膽小鬼！）。語言之道亦相通，你需要實際看到語言被應用的實例。所以字典並非是上乘的替代方案。
We are not big fans of dictionaries. No, we are not anti-book - we love books (Luiz - indeed, we write them!). But dictionaries often seek to define something so simply, they can miss the wider more useful meaning. It's like looking at a leopard in a zoo. Yeah, it's a leopard, but that's a very different experience from seeing it in the wild (Luiz - I am not sure I want to see it in the wild... Matt - coward!). Language is the same - you really need to see it being used. A dictionary is a poor replacement.
當我在BBC看到一則1萬2千年前的古老 'frieze 雕樑壁畫/帶狀雕刻’ 石畫在亞馬遜被發現的新聞時 ( 該畫含括呈現了已滅絕的動物如：長毛象)，我拿起字典研究這篇文章，結果令我大失所望。身為母語人士，我雖知道 'frieze 雕樑壁畫/帶狀雕刻’ 一詞，不過這可能是我頭一遭查閱。對我而言，'frieze' 是指一系列連續的水平岩畫。的確，就是新聞中的岩畫藝術，一個長幅水平畫作，就像一個長形飾帶。不過，若你查找字典，會看到兩個定義：一是繡帶邊框的布料、二是牆壁頂部具裝飾性的水平飾邊，字典中未提及任何與藝術或繪畫有關的內容。只有進一步在 wikipedia 維基百科上才能找到更完整的解釋，此字涵義已衍生涵蓋任何一連串系列長幅水平藝術作品。
When I saw the news on the BBC about a 'frieze' of ancient 12000 year old rock art paintings discovered in the Amazon (complete with pictures of extinct animals like mastodons), I took to my dictionary to research this article - and was disappointed. Now, as a native speaker, I know what a 'frieze' is, but this may be the first time I've actually checked. To me a 'frieze' is a series of horizontal paintings. And, indeed, that is what this rock art is - a long horizontal painting, like a band. But, if you look it up in a dictionary, you will get 2 definitions: 1 - some kind of cloth with an embroidered border 2 - a decorative horizontal band at the top of a wall. Nothing about art or paintings. Only when you get to wikipedia do you get a more full definition that explains that the meaning is extended to any long horizontal piece or series of pieces of art.
這個字歷史的確源自 'cloth 布 / 織物' ( 法語中的 'frise' 或 'friser 捲曲/捲髮' )。的確，我們今日常以'frizzý' 形容細軟捲曲的頭髮 ( Luiz : 就如Matt的頭髮，Matt : 謝謝噢！Luiz )。不過這對我們記憶這個字幫助不大，除非你原本就知道 'frizzy' 一字；而這個字聽起來又像 'freeze 凍結' ，所以我們可以利用這點 ! 記住這句話 : 'A frieze of rock art from the freezing Ice Age was found in the Amazon 一幅冰原世紀的雕樑壁畫在亞馬遜被發現' ! freeze 凍結 = frieze 雕樑壁畫/帶狀雕刻。當然，你要記住不同的拼法，而且例句中已經提供一個線索，Ice Age 中的 'i' 會提示你正確的拼法 !
The word's history does come from the idea of 'cloth' (French 'frise' or to curl 'friser'). Indeed, we often say curly hair is 'frizzý' today if it is fine and curly (Luiz - like Matt's hair, Matt - thanks, Luiz). But that doesn't really help us remember it, unless you already know the word 'frizzy', The word does sound like 'freeze' however - so we can use that! Remember this sentence: 'A frieze of rock art from the freezing Ice Age was found in the Amazon!' freeze = frieze. You will, of course, need to remember the different spelling, but we have worked a clue into the example - Ice Age will give you the 'i' you need to spell the word right!
耶！我們終於教了一個與川普或疫情無關的單字 ! 記得，不要光查字典，上 google 找找會發現什麼？圖片、維基百科、其它例句…。在廣闊的荒地中查找單字，別只光看猶如動物園般狹隘的字典 !
Well, we did it! We finally taught you a word that has nothing to do with Trump or the pandemic! And remember - don't just check a dictionary - google a word and see what you find - the pictures, the wikipedia, other examples. Look at words in the wild, not just the 'zoo' of a dictionary!